Vertical spacing

The Above and Below properties set the amount of vertical space above or below a paragraph. By default, this space is discarded at page boundaries — see “Vertical space retention” if you need to override this behaviour.

When traversing a series of nested paragraphs, it is not uncommon to pass a paragraph boundary containing several adjoining inter-paragraph spaces. For example, after the last paragraph of a chapter we might have:

  • a 6 pt space below the paragraph

  • a 24 pt space below the chapter

  • a 30 pt space above the following chapter

  • a 6 pt space above the chapter heading

As a general rule, when several spaces run together (with no text in between), then only the largest of these spaces is actually applied (in this case 30 pt).

However, multiple retained spaces have a cumulative effect (see “Vertical space retention”).

[Note] Note

Inter-paragraph space settings must be either zero or a positive measure. It is not possible to squeeze paragraphs together by specifying a negative space.

By default, space below at the end of a table cell is discarded. You can use the space retention options to retain below space in table cells.

The vertical space between footnotes is defined by the paragraph above spacing in force at the start of each footnote. Paragraph below spacing declared at the end of a preceding footnote is discarded. See Footnotes — Vertical spacing for more details.